Depression: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Prevention

What is depression?

Depression (major depressive disorder) is a mood disorder or mood of decreased feelings (easy sadness, anger or offense), motor impairment (loss of motivation as well as interest in everything) and decreased thinking process (apathy and despair life). Depression is different from the fluctuations in mood experienced by many as part of normal life. Temporary emotional responses such as grieving or grieving when the loss of a loved one is a natural one. However, if the sadness drags on for weeks or months along with motor degradation is also a process of thinking, then such a condition is called depression. Psychologists call this sadness of depression a “complicated bereavement”.

Types of depression In addition to major depression called major depressive disorder or major depressive disorder, there are also other types of depression including the following: Persistent depressive disorder (PDD). Depression lasting 2 years or more. This term is used to describe two conditions formerly known as dysthymia (low grade persistent depression) and chronic severe depression. Bipolar disorder. Known as bipolar disorder or manic depressive. A condition in which there is a fluctuating mood swings are also extreme. From the previous happy to be very sad and vice versa. Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The type of depression that is affected by climate change. Usually occurs in countries that have four seasons. Often arise during autumn and peak during winter, then subside / disappear with the arrival of spring or summer. Psychotic depression.

This type of severe depression is accompanied by psychotic symptoms of hallucinations, delusions and paranoia. Peripartum or postpartum depression (PPD). The type of severe depression experienced by women postpartum. May last for weeks and even months. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). A collection of physical, psychological and emotional symptoms lasting a week before menstruation.

Symptoms resemble PMS, but with a more severe degree to interfere with life and relationships with people around. Situational depression. The type of short-term depression associated with an inability to adapt or adjust. Also called reactive depression. It usually develops after a traumatic event or a series of events, such as moving home / school or while losing a job or a loved one.

What are the characteristics and symptoms of depression?

Symptoms of depression vary from one individual to another. But in general, the symptoms of depression are deep feelings of sadness, loss of motivation or interest in everything and persistent despair.

The more symptoms you have, the stronger the symptoms are felt and the longer the symptoms take place, marking the level of depression heavier. Here are the symptoms of depression more:

Psychic symptoms:

  • Feelings of sadness deep and constant.
  • Easily angry and offended.
  • Losing interest in everything.
  • Pessimistic, desperate and feeling worthless.
  • Difficult to concentrate, remember things and make decisions.
  • Always blame yourself.
  • Apathetic.
  • Thinking of hurting yourself or others.
  • Thinking of attempting murder against yourself or someone else.

Physical symptoms:

  • Fatigue.
  • Psychomotor agitation, restless appears to repeat useless activity.
  • Psychomotor retardation, slowing of movement, thinking and saying.
  • Insomnia or hypersomnia.
  • Headache and pain (back, neck, joint, chest and other).
  • Weight loss or weight gain.
  • Appetite is lost or increased.
  • Decreased libido.
  • Disruption of menstrual cycle in women.

It is said to be depressed when experiencing five or more of the above symptoms (both psychic and physical) and persist for at least 2 weeks, to interfere with daily activities and relationships with people around.

When should I see a doctor?

Immediately consult a psychiatrist or psychiatrist if you feel any disturbing emotional distress and have a direct impact on the deteriorating quality of everyday life.

Causes and Risk Factors What causes depression?

Experts to date have not been able to know for sure the cause of depression. Strongly conjecture, this condition is caused by a combination of several complex factors such as biological factors such as imbalances of neurotransmitters and hormones, psychological factors such as personality and social factors such as lack of social support.

Who is more at risk of depression?

Factors that can increase a person’s risk of depression include:

  • Family history. A person with a family history of depression, alcoholism and suicide is more at risk of depression.
  • Gender. Women have twice the risk of depression compared to men.
  • Age. Young age groups, ie adolescents and adults are more prone to depression.
  • Lifestyle. In some people, unhealthy lifestyles like staying up too often, lazy to exercise, smoking, drinking or eating junk food can lead to depression.
  • Disease. Serious or chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, diabetes or heart disease can trigger sufferers to lose confidence and self-esteem (self-esteem) that can lead to depression.
  • Drugs. Tranquilizers, steroid therapy, anti-hypertension, chemotherapy drugs and drugs such as cannabis and shabu-shabu can trigger depression because it affects chemicals in the brain and cause dependence.
  • Personality. A person who is perfectionist, hypersensitive, shy / dependent, overly dependent, anxious or easily affected and introverted more at risk of depression.
  • Traumatic events and stress. Violence or physical or sexual abuse, death or loss of loved ones, employment and financial problems pose a great risk of triggering depression.
  • Sexual abnormalities. Someone who has sexual disorders such as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender are at great risk of depression.

Examination and Diagnosis How to confirm the diagnosis of depression?

The diagnosis of depression is done through a thorough evaluation, including interviews, physical and psychological examinations. In some cases, a blood test may be needed to rule out the possibility of another disease that causes symptoms resembling depression. For example, such as thyroid disease, brain tumor or vitamin deficiency.

Drugs and Medication

How to treat depression at home?

Treating depression at home can be done by increasing the consumption of soothing foods such as chocolate and berries accompanied by the application of some simple relaxation methods through deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga and other things that can focus the mind and soul to the Creator.

What are the handling and medications for depression in health care? Handling of principled depression on biopsychosocial approaches. Biologically by using drugs in the form of antidepressants, psychological using psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy (thognitive behavioral theraphy), problem-solving therapy, interpersonal therapy or psychodynamic and social therapy using social support and modification.

What are the possible complications of depression that may arise?

Depression is a serious health condition that can bring a bad influence on the patient as well as those around him. Some of the complications associated with depression include:

  • Obesity that triggers the occurrence of heart disease and diabetes.
  • Abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs.
  • Social isolation.
  • Violence against self as well as others.
  • Suicide.
  • Early death due to medical conditions that may arise.

Prevention How to prevent depression?

Some ways that can be applied as a preventive measure of depression include:

  • Maintaining spirituality.
  • Learn to be able to manage stress or mental stress as best as you can.
  • Maintain good relationships with family and people around.
  • Equip yourself with depression knowledge including the signs or symptoms.
  • Changing personality becomes more open, flexible and realistic.
  • Refreshes and rests on daily routine.

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